There’s a problem with the way we define inequality

By Bryan Lufkin| BBC.com

We are failing to look at inequality in the right way, according to researchers who study people’s attitudes to wealth disparity.

Haves and have-nots. The 99%. The income gap. The chasm between rich and poor has never mattered more. It’s estimated that the top 1% of the world’s richest people owns 50% of the planet’s wealth.

Solving this level of inequality is often held up as a ‘grand challenge’ for the world. But is that the right way to look at it?

Some researchers argue that income disparity itself may not be the main problem. The issue, they say, is not the existence of a gap between rich and poor, but the existence of unfairness. Some people are treated preferentially and others unjustly – and acknowledging that both poverty and unfairness are related may be the challenge that matters more in the 21st Century.

While many people may already view inequality as unfairness, making the distinction much clearer is important: to improve the society we live in, these researchers are arguing that we need to all be on the same page as to what inequality actually is. Only then can we direct resources to the places that matter.

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What is it about inequality that bothers us: the fact that some people are rich and others are poor? Or that not everyone has an equal shot? Or something else?

In a paper published in April in the journal Nature Human Behaviour called ‘Why people prefer unequal societies’, a team of researchers from Yale University argue that humans – even as young children and babies – actually prefer living in a world in which inequality exists. It sounds counter-intuitive, so why would that be? Because if people find themselves in a situation where everyone is equal, studies suggest that many become angry or bitter if people who work hard aren’t rewarded, or if slackers are over-rewarded.

For example, in one study, a group of six- to eight-year-olds was tasked with divvying up erasers among two boys who cleaned a room as rewards. Researchers found that, if they told the group of children that both boys did a good job, and then gave the group an odd number of erasers, the kids made the unanimous decision to throw away the extra eraser rather than give it to one of the boys as an unfair bonus.

And yet? When the researchers told the kids that one boy worked harder than the other, the group awarded the extra prize to the harder worker.

“We argue that the public perception of wealth inequality itself being aversive to most people is incorrect, and that instead, what people are truly concerned about is unfairness,” says Christina Starmans, a psychology post-doc at Yale who worked on the paper.

“In the present-day US, and much of the world, these two issues are confounded, because there is so much inequality that the assumption is that it must be unfair. But this has led to an incorrect focus on wealth inequality itself as the problem that needs addressing, rather than the more central issue of fairness.”

Starman’s co-author Mark Sheskin, a cognitive science post-doc at Yale, puts the findings of this research succinctly: “People typically prefer fair inequality to unfair equality”.

The reason this matters is that trying to create a world with no wealth disparity is at odds with people’s perception of fairness, and that could potentially lead to instability. A society where no poverty exists sounds rather utopian, but if that society is equal-but-unfair then it risks collapsing, argues Nicholas Bloom, an economics professor at Stanford University.

“As reasonable as it sounds, people don’t typically work, create or strive without the motivation to do so,” says Bloom. “If I’m a painter, dentist or builder, why would I work for 50 hours a week if everything I’m given is free? From my own experience managing people, humans actually think it’s unreasonable for people that skive to get rewarded. When you run large teams, there is nothing that sends people mad more than lazy individuals getting the same rewards and promotions as the hard workers.”

But how can we define inequality?

Researchers argue that we need an agreed-upon definition of the term ‘inequality’.

It’s important to remember that, as we figure out ways to combat inequality, that there are three separate (but related) ideas.

First, the idea that people should have equal opportunity in society, regardless of their background, race, sexuality, gender and so on.

The second idea is fair distribution, which says that benefits or rewards should be distributed fairly based on merit.

Grand Challenges

In this special series, Future Now takes a close look at the biggest, most important issues we face in the 21st Century.

We’ll bring you insights from leading scientists, technologists, entrepreneurs and influencers to help you make sense of the challenges we face in today’s rapidly evolving world.

The final idea is the notion of equality of outcome, or that people receive equal outcomes regardless of circumstance. This last one is a little trickier to grasp. Many of the experts BBC Future talked to brought up the phrase ‘inequality of outcome’: say if you were given £5 and your friend was given £10. That represents inequality of outcome, since the two of you have different amounts of money, regardless of how that came to be.

Each of these ideas represent a different kind of inequality that manifests in everyday life and that contributes to the overarching mega-trend that many regular people think of as ‘economic inequality’. Recognising these different dimensions is crucial for formulating a holistic battle plan.

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So which of these types of inequality should be addressed? Which leads to a potentially better society?

Fighting the real issue

Many of the researchers and economists interviewed for this piece agree: too much attention is paid to the fact that the 1%, and the super-rich all exist.

Instead, they argue we need to concentrate more on helping those less fortunate, who via a lack of fairness, are unable to improve their situation.

Harry G Frankfurt is a professor emeritus of philosophy at Princeton University. In his book On Inequality, he argues that the moral obligation should be on eliminating poverty, not achieving equality, and striving to make sure everyone has the means to lead a good life.

“I do think that people are likely to respond with greater sympathy to the suffering brought on by poverty than to the harms necessarily imposed on those who are less wealthy than some others,” Frankfurt says. “This might support appropriate legislation to relieve the disadvantages of poverty.”

Economic inequality is such a massive, sprawling, nuanced, intense issue; the product of complex cultural and political forces around the world throughout history.

However, by understanding the different definitions of inequality – like inequality of opportunity – it highlights more clearly that not everyone is afforded the same opportunities to succeed, even if they put in that hard work.

Depending on your political viewpoint, the way of addressing inequality might be different: perhaps the left might favour universal health care for all, while the right might favour job creation that employs low-wage workers. Whatever the political plan of action, however, experts say the solution lies in in addressing the fact that poverty and unfairness exist.

Because that should be the real moral obligation, these researchers say – empathising with our fellow humans.

“It will be beneficial to shift the conversation, and the research, away from inequality itself,” says Starmans, “and toward issues such as unfairness and poverty, which are the core of what we are concerned about.”

不平等和不公平哪个才是问题?

富人及穷人,99%,收入差距。贫富差距从未像今天这样引人瞩目。据估计,世界最富有的1%人口坐拥世界50%的财富。

人们长期以来一致认为,消除这一巨大的不平等是世界面临的巨大挑战。但是,我们是否采取了正确方式看待不平等问题?

有研究者认为,收入差距本身并不是问题的核心。他们说,收入差距问题的关键并不在于富人和穷人存在收入差距,而在于缺乏公平。有些人得到了优待,而有些人则受到不公正对待。承认贫困和不公平之间的关联在21世纪可能变成更为重要的挑战。

尽管许多人已经把不平等和不公平看作是同一件事物,但是有必要把它们清楚地区分开:为了改良我们所处的社会,研究者说,我们首先需要就不平等的准确定义达成一致。只有这样,我们才能把资源投放在真正重要的地方。

什么是不平等?这个问题一直困扰着我们:不平等就是有些人富裕,有些人贫穷吗?还是每人获得的机会不同?还是其他什么?

《自然人类行为》(Nature Human Behaviour)杂志于今年4月发表了一篇题为《为什么人们更愿意生活在不平等社会?》的论文。这篇由一个耶鲁大学研究小组撰写的论文认为,人类——即便是儿童和婴儿——也愿意生活在一个不平等的世界里。这个说法听起来和人们的直觉相悖,人类为什么会出现这种想法?研究揭示了个中原因:如果人们处于一个所有人平均分配的无差异社会,那么很多人就会对努力工作的人得不到应得报酬,而滥竽充数的懒汉则会不劳而获这种现象感到愤怒和痛苦。

例如,在一项实验研究中,要求一群6-8岁的小孩给两个打扫了房间的男孩分配橡皮作为给他们的奖励。研究者发现,要是他们告诉这群小孩,两个男孩的工作都很出色,然后发给评判者们奇数块橡皮,他们就一致同意把多余的一块橡皮扔掉,而不是把它奖给其中一名男孩作为一种不公平的奖励。

但是,当研究者告诉这群小孩,其中有一个男孩比另外一个打扫得更加努力时,他们就会把多余的一块橡皮奖励给工作更努力的男孩。

“我们发现,认为大多数人对不平等感到厌恶的想法是错误的。恰恰相反,人们真正担忧的是不公平,”论文撰写人、耶鲁大学心理学博士后克里斯蒂娜·斯塔曼斯(Christina Starmans)表示。

“在今天的美国和世界上很多国家,这两个问题都混乱地交织成了一团。人们会简单地认为,不平等本身就是不公平。由于这种想法,人们往往认为真正急需解决的问题在于不平等,而对更核心的公平问题则视而不见。”

论文联合作者、耶鲁大学认知科学博士后马克·谢思金(Mark Sheskin)则以更为简洁的语言对研究发现做了总结:”人们宁可要公平的不平等,也不要不公平的平等。”

这一点至关重要的原因在于,由于人们更加看重公平,创建一个没有贫富差距的世界的目标无法在人群中达成一致,进而会导致社会动荡。斯坦福大学经济学教授尼古拉斯·布鲁姆(Nicholas Bloom)说,一个不存在贫困现象的社会听上去很美,但是如果这个社会消除了贫富差距但却没有公平可言,则将面临社会崩溃的风险。

“人们如果没有这样做的动机,是不会去工作、创造或奋斗的,这一点非常合理,”布鲁姆说。”如果我是一名画家、牙医或建筑工人,在一个所有东西都免费的社会伦理,我为什么要一周辛苦工作50个小时呢?根据我自己的人力资源管理经验,人们会把整天旷工也能挣工资看成是不公的。你要是管理一个大型团队,没有什么比懒汉和勤快人挣一样的钱、并获得同样的晋升机会更能破坏团队士气的了。”

但是,我们该如何定义不平等?

研究者认为,我们需要给”不平等”一词下一个能普遍接受的定义。

应当记住,在对抗不平等的过程中,我们会用到三个各自独立,但却相互关联的观点

首先,无论其背景、种族、性取向、性别等特质如何,人们都应当在社会中获得公平的机会。

第二个观点是公平分配。福利和奖励应当根据贡献大小加以公平分配。

最后一个观点是成果的公平,或者说无论情况如何,人们都可以获得公平的成果。最后一个观点较难把握。BBC未来频道采访的许多专家都提到了”成果的不平等”这个概念:如果给你5英镑,给你的朋友10英镑,你们两个获得的金额不同,这就构成了成果的不平等,不管它是如何得到的。

这三个观点都代表了存在于日常生活中的各种不平等现象,并且都影响到普通人对于”贫富差距”的看法。在制定总体计划时,必须考虑到这几个不同维度。

那么应当解决哪个不平等现象?解决了哪个不平等现象就有望打造一个更好的社会?

解决真正的问题

很多接受采访的研究者和经济学家都认为,人们对于最富有的1%富人给予了过多关注,这些超级富豪的身影简直无处不在。

他们认为,我们应当更加专注于中低收入群体。由于没有受到公平对待,他们无法改变自己的地位。

普林斯顿大学名誉哲学教授哈里·G·法兰克福(Harry G Frankfurt)在他的著作《论不平等》(On Inequality)里写道,人们的道德义务倾向于消除贫困,而非争取公平。人们会努力让每个人都能享受到美好生活。

“我认为,与较贫困者所处的相对困境相比,极度贫困者的悲惨生活更能引起人们的同情,”法兰克福说。”这种心态会促进扶持穷人的法律出台。”

贫富差距是一个规模庞大、不断扩展、敏感微妙且极度激烈的问题。这是长期以来世界各地高度复杂的文化和政治作用力的产物。

然而,通过了解不平等的不同定义,例如机会的不平等,这一定义认为,有很多人没有获得同样的机会,即便他们努力工作,也最终被排除在成功之外。

解决不平等问题的手段取决于你的政治观点:左派会选择全民医疗保险,右派则选择为低收入群体创造就业岗位。然而,无论政治行动计划为何,专家都认为消除贫困和不平等的方法是存在的。

研究者称,我们负有同情穷人的道德义务。

“应当把争论和研究从不平等本身移开,”斯塔曼斯说,”转移到不公平和贫困上去。这两个问题才是我们最应关注的核心问题。”

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20170706-theres-a-problem-with-the-way-we-define-inequality

http://www.bbc.com/ukchina/simp/vert-fut-40741752

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