圣经文化系列2

《圣经》是西方世界的历史,社会和文化的集中体现,《圣经》中的一些语言已经渗透到英语的日常生活用语当中,了解这些语言,将有助于我们更好的与西方人交流,也会帮助我们更好的理解英美文学作品。
一、运用《圣经》中特指的动物进行表述
1、A little bird told me.一只小鸟告诉我。
From: The Book of Ecclesiastes《传道书》
Do not curse the king, even in your thoughts; do not curse the rich, even in your bedroom; for a bird of the air may carry your voice, and a bird in flight may tell the matter.
此言喻指“有人(私下)告诉我,消息不胫而走”。
Example: –How do you know this information?
–A little bird told me.
2、The leopard won’t change its spots.豹子不会改变身上的斑点。
From: The Book of Jeremiah《邱利亚书》
Can the Ethiopion change its skin, or the leopard its spots? Then may ye also do good,
that are accustomed to do evil. Therefore I will scatter them like stubble that passes away by the wind of the wilderness.
此言喻指:本性难改
Example: I think Jim will reform himself, but Tom won’t, as a leopard won’t change its spots.
3、Balaam’s donkey 巴兰的驴
From: The Book of Numbers《民数记》
So the donkey said to Balaam,”Am I not your donkey on which you have ridden, ever since I became yours,to this day? Was I ever disposed to do this to you?”
此言喻指“平素沉默驯服而突然提出抗议的人”。
Example: I don’t think Jim is Balaam’s donkey.
4、a lion in the road 道上有狮子
From: The Book of Proverbs《箴言》
Do you see a man wise in his own eyes? There is more hope for a fool than for him. The lazy man says,”There is a lion in the road! A fierce lion is in the streets!”
此言喻指:“拦路虎,可怕的障碍”等
Example: A lion in the road, so he did’t pass the examination.
5、Sheep that have no shepherd 没有牧人的羊群
From: The First Book of Kings 《列王记(上)》
I saw all Israel scattered on the mountains, like sheep that have no shepherd. And the lord said:”These have no master. Let each of them return to his house in peace.”
此言喻指:“群龙无首,没有领头人的群众”。
Example: Our group is like sheep having no shepherd in this match.
二、运用《圣经》中特指的人物进行表述。
1、Adam and Eve 亚当和夏娃
From: The Book of Genesis 《创世记》
And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
Then the rib which the Lord God had taken from the man He made into a woman and brought her to the man.
[喻]祖先,人类始祖
Example: Tom’s grandma lived to be over a hundred,—-lived to be Adam and Eve, as they say.
2、Lot’s wife 罗德的妻子
From: The Book of Genesis《创世纪》
When the Lord began to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, he sent two angels to urge the goodman Lot and his family to flee and warned them not to turn their head in flight.
But too curious to see what was happening to her home city, his wife looked back behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.(其中Sodom和Gomorrah均是因居民罪孽深重而被上帝焚毁的古城)
[喻]过分好奇的人
Example: Curious as Lot’s wife, Helen can’t get along well with her classmates.
3、Moses 摩西
From: The Book of Exadus《出埃及记》
Moses led the Jews out of Egypt.
[喻]领导者,领袖
Example: In this war, you are our Moses.
4、Samaritan 撒马利亚人
From: The Gospel According to Luke《路加福音》
But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was,and when he saw him, he had compassion on him. And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine,and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him.
[喻]乐善好施者
Example: this poor man begged,”you good Samaritan, have pity on me!”
5、Saul and David 扫罗和大卫
From: The Book of Samuel 《撒母耳记》
In the battle with the philistines, David killed many with stones, on his triumphant return, women sang,”Saul has slained his thousands and David his ten thousands,” which made Saul the king very jealous.
[喻]不可同日而语,有天壤之别
Example: Compared with John, I did very little indeed. Saul has slained his thousands and David his ten thousands.
三、运用特指的建筑物名称、地名、城市名等进行表述。
1、Garden of Eden 伊甸园
From: The Book of Genesis 《创世纪》
Then the Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to tend and keep it. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying,”Of every tree of good and eveil you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.”
[喻]人间天堂,乐园
Example: This place is thought the Garden of Eden by youg people.
2、Tower of Babel 巴别塔
From: The Book of Genesis 《创世纪》
So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they ceased building the city. therefore its name is called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of th earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth.
[喻]空想、空中楼阁
Example: They think Mike’s plan is the tower of Babel.
3、a land of flowing with milk and honey 流奶与蜜之地
From: The Book of Exodus 《出埃及记》
So I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a good and large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey.
[喻]富饶之地、鱼米之乡
Example: His hometown is considered to be a nice place, a land flowing with milk and honey.
四、运用特指的日常生活用品进行表述。
1、Aaron’s rod 亚伦的杖
From: The Book of Exodus 《出埃及记》
“And you shall write Aaron’s name on the rod of Levi, for there shall be one rod of the head of each father’s house.”
[喻]大权在握
Example: What do you want if you are given Aaron’s rod?
2、a widow’s cruse 寡妇的坛子
From: the Book of Kings 《列王记》
And she said,”Your maidservant has nothing in the house, but a jar of oil.” Then he(Elisha) said,”Go, borrow vessels from everywhere, from all your neighbors–empty vessels; do not gather just a few. … then pour it into all those vessels, and set aside the full ones.”
[喻]貌似有限但取之不竭的财源
Example: In Susan’s courtyard, the little well is a widow’s cruse, which never dries, even in the severe season of drought.
3、coat of many colors 彩衣
From: The Book of Genesis 《创世记》
Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age, and he made him a coat of many colors.
[喻]恩宠
Example: In our classroom, Liu Tao is the one wearing a coat of many colors before our teacher
五、两种熟悉的事物合用, 表述一种含义。
1、pillar of cloud and pillar of fire 云柱和火柱
From: The Book of Exodus 《出埃及记》
And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so as to go by the day and night.
[喻]指路明灯
Example: Jane regard her teachers as pillars of cloud and pillars of fire in her life.珍妮把她的老师们当作自己人生的指路明灯。
2、loaves and fishes 面包和鱼
From: The Gospel According to John 《约翰福音》
And when they found Him on th other side of the sea, they said to Him,”Rabbi, when did You come here?” Jesus answered them and said,”Most assuredly, I tell you, you seek me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate of the loaves and were filled.”
[喻]物质利益、实惠、好处
Example: They seek office, not to be useful to the state, but for the loaves and fishes.他们谋求工职,不是为了对国家有用,而是为了个人私利。
3、dove and olive leaf 鸽子和橄榄枝
From: The Book of Genesis 《创世纪》
And he waited yet another seven days, and again he sent the dove out from the ark. Then the dove came to him in the evening, and behold, a freshly plucked olive leaf was in her mouth; and Noah knew that the waters had receded from the earth.
[喻]和平,和解
Example: They are flying flag of dove and olive leaf instead of war.他们提出要和平,而不是要战争。
1. a drop in the bucket 沧海一粟;九牛一毛
Behold, the nations are as a drop in a bucket, and are counted as the small dust on the balance; look, He lifts up the isles as a very little thing. Isaial 40:15 看哪,万民都象水桶的一滴,又算如天平上的微尘;他举起众海岛,好像极微之物。(<以赛亚书>40章15节)
The amount being spent on scientific research is a drop in the bucket. 花在科学研究上的费用是微不足道的。
2. a fly in the ointment 美中不足;使人扫兴的小事
Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth a stinking savor: so doth a little folly him that is in reputation for wisdom and honor. Ecclesiastes 10:1 死苍蝇使作香的膏油发出臭气。这样,—点愚昧,也能败坏智慧和尊荣((传道书>10章1节)
I find the house wonderful, but there is a fly in the ointment–it is too far from the town. 我觉得那所房子非常好,但是有—点美中不足,就是离市区太远了。
Your new job sounds too good to be true–interesting work, high pay, short hours. Isn’t there any fly in the ointment?你的新工作好得难以置信.有趣味,工资高,工时短。有没有什么美中不足呢?
3.a grain of mustard seed 一粒芥种;大有前途的微小事物
Another parable He put forth to them, saying:”The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field.” Matthew 13:31他又设个比喻对他们说;“天国好像一粒芥菜种,有人拿去种在田里。” (《马大福音》13章31节)
Mistakes of policy, which were perhaps the mustard seed when committed, grew into mighty trees of mischief.–Daily Telegraph政策上的错误,初犯时可能是毫厘之差,终会酿成滔天大祸。—《每日电讯报》
This fevered hope had grown up again like a grain of mustard seed–Thomas Hardy 这个强烈的希望就好像一粒芥菜种那样又长出来了。—托马斯.哈代

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